初中英语疑问句语法全解!

发布于 2021-08-20 17:50

语法详解


01

What time do you + V ...?



结构︰ 问句:What time+do/does+主词+原形动词…?

          答句:主词(某人)+一般动词…+时间。

说明︰ 此句型意为“某人几点做某事?”助动词 do 或 does 的选择依主词而定,若主词为第三人称单数,用 does;其它用 do。


What time do you get up? I usually get up at six.  你几点起床?我通常六点起床。

What time does he go to bed? He usually goes to bed at ten.他几点就寝?他通常十点就寝。

What time does your class begin? It begins at eight-ten. 你的课几点开始?八点十分开始。


02
What day is today?


结构︰ 问句:What day is today?

          答句:It’s+Sunday/Monday/…。

说明︰ 此句型意为“今天是星期几?今天是星期日/星期一/…。”it可用于指“星期的名称”,但 this或 that 不可以;一星期七天的名称,都是专有名词,开头的首字母要大写,前面不加冠词。


What day is today? It’s Sunday.   今天是星期几?今天是星期日。

What day is today? It’s Wednesday.   今天是星期几?今天是星期三。、

What day is today? It’s Saturday.   今天是星期几?今天是星期六。


03
How many N are there ...


结构︰ 问句:How many+复数名词+are there in/on+名词?

         答句:There is/are+单数(复数)名词+in/on+名词。

说明︰ 此句型意为“在某处有多少……?在某处有…。”该句型中,many 修饰复数名词;又因本句型是疑问句,故用 are there,不可用 there are。


How many seasons are there in a year? There are four seasons in a year.

一年有几个季节?一年有四季。

How many days are there in a week? There are seven days in a week.

一星期有几天?一星期有七天。

How many lessons are there in this book? There are twelve lessons in this book.

这本书里有几课?这本书里有十二课。


04
How many ... do you have?


结构︰ 问句:How many+复数名词+do/does+主词+have?

           答句:主词+have/has…+复数名词+…。

           答句:主词+don’t/doesn’t have…+复数名词…。

说明︰ “How many”后面接复数可数名词,复数名词的前面可用 many,a lot of,a few,some,few,any,no 等修饰。


How many books do you have? I have a lot of books. (I don’t have any books.)

你有几本书?我有许多书。(我没有书。)

How many sweaters do you have? I have three sweaters. (I don’t have any sweaters.)

你有几件毛衣?我有三件毛衣。(我没有毛衣。)

How many friends does she have? She has a lot of friends. (She doesn’t have many friends.)她有几个朋友?她有许多朋友。(她没有许多朋友。)


05
How much ... do you have?


结构︰ 问句:How much+单数不可数名词+do/does+主词+have?

           答句:主词+have/has…+单数不可数名词。

           答句:主词+don’t/doesn’t have…+单数不可数名词。

说明︰ “How much”后面接单数不可数名词,单数不可数名词前面可用 much, a little,some,little,any,no 等修饰。


How much tea does he have? He has a lot of tea. (He doesn’t have any tea.) 

他有多少茶?他有很多茶。(他没有茶。)

How much homework do they have? They have a lot of homework.They don’t have much homework.)

他们有多少家庭作业?他们有许多家庭作业。(他们没有许多家庭作业。)

How much fruit do they have? They have a lot of fruit. (They don’t have a lot of fruit.)

他们有多少水果?他们有许多水果。(他们没有许多水果。)


06
How much do(es)... cost?


结构︰ How much do(es)+某物+cost…?

说明︰ 此句型意为“某物值多少钱?”。how much 用来询问商品的价格。还可以写作:“How much+ be 动词+某物?”。


How much do the vegetables cost?  这些蔬菜值多少钱?

How much do the movie tickets cost?  这些电影票值多少钱?


07


结构︰ Did+主词+原形动词+…过去时间?



08
Do you ever + V ...?


结构︰ 问句:Do/Does+主词+ever+原形动词…?

           答句:No,主词+never+一般动词(加s或es)…。

说明︰ ever 通常用于疑问句,never 通常用于否定回答;never 也可放在句首,后接原形动词,形成否定祈使句,如例句4。


你曾经使用电脑吗?不,我未曾使用过电脑。

Does Tom ever get up late? No, Tom never gets up late.

汤姆曾经晚起床吗?不,汤姆未曾晚起床过。

Does Sally ever play the piano? No, Sally never plays the piano.

萨莉曾经弹钢琴吗?不,萨莉未曾弹过钢琴。

Never be late for school, Bill.  比尔,上学绝不可迟到。


09
What year was he born in?


结构︰ What date/year+was/were+主词+born+on/in?

说明︰ 此句型意为“你出生于几月几日(那一年)?”。born 是原形动词bear 的过去分词,在文法上当形容词,前面常有 was 或 were;中文说“某人出生”,英语应说:“某人+was/were born…”。


What year were you born in?  你出生于那一年?

What date was your mother born on?  你母亲出生于几月几日?


010
What will you do on ...?


结构︰ What will/did+主词+do+on+时间?

说明︰ 此句型意为“某人在某时间将做什么?(未来式)某人在某时做了什么事?(过去式)”。指特定的日期(如几月几日)、星期几或星期几的早上(下午,晚上),要用介系词on。


What will they do on Christmas Eve?  他们在圣诞夜将做什么事?

What will Helen do on her birthday?  海伦在她生日那天将做什么事?


011
How do you + V ...?


结构︰ 问句:How+do+主词+一般动词…?

          答句:主词+一般动词…+情状副词。

说明︰ How 是问情况的疑问副词,表示“怎样…?”。用于说明“状态或性质”的副词,称为情状副词。当用来修饰不及物动词时,情状副词位于其后;当用来修饰及物动词时,情状动词位于及物动词的前面或后面。


你怎样做你的工作?我很快乐地做了我的工作。

林太太怎样注视林先生?她冷漠地注视林先生。

How does Mr. Wang drive his taxi? He drives his taxi carefully.

王先生怎样驾驶他的计程车?他小心地驾驶他的计程车。


012
You are ...,aren’t you?


结构︰ 肯定句,+否定式助动词+主词?

说明︰ 这是一种反意疑问句,其结构特点是:第一部分是肯定式,第二部分就用否定式。直述句的主词是名词时,附加问句的主词要用代名词代替:it 代替 this,that,不定词(当主词)或动名词(当主词)等;they 代替 these,those, people 等。



They’re ready, aren’t they?(读降调)他们准备好了吧?(读升调)他们准备好了,不是吗?

Mike has a car, doesn’t he?(读降调)麦克有辆车,是吧?(读升调)麦克有辆车,不是吗?

The secretary typed the letter, didn’t she?   是秘书打了这封信,不是吗?

They will go to Europe, won’t they?   他们将去欧洲,不是吗?

You are the teacher, aren’t you? 你就是老师,不是吗?

I suppose you have been in our woods, haven’t you?我推想你在我们的森林里呆过,不是吗?

I know he had a good time last night, didn’t he? 我知道他昨天晚上玩得很愉快,不是吗?

The wall plug is broken, isn’t it?   墙上的插座坏了,不是吗?

Clean parks are beautiful, aren’t they?  干净的公园是美丽的,不是吗?

You can do it, can’t you?    你会做它,不是吗?

We should rise early, shouldn’t we?   我们应该早起,不是吗?


013
He isn’t ..., is he?


结构︰ 否定句,+肯定式助动词+主词?

说明︰ 这是另一种反意疑问句。否定结构在第一部分,第二部分就要用肯定结构。对反意疑问句的回答和对否定式一般疑问句一样,要看答句。


He isn’t a manager, is he? -- Yes, he is. (No, he isn’t.)

他不是经理,是吧?--不,他是经理。(是的,他不是经理。)

Mike doesn’t have a car, does he?  麦克没有车,是吗?

They won’t go to Europe, will they? 他们不会去欧洲,是吗?

You aren’t the teacher, are you?  你不是老师,是吗?

I don’t think he can answer the question, can he?  我想他无法回答这个问题,是吗?


014
What in the world ...?


结构︰ 疑问词+in the world/on earth/ever+其他

说明︰ 此句型意为“究竟…?到底…?”。这是特殊疑问句的强调说法。in the world,on earth 和 ever是强调疑问词的片语。


How in the world will he do it? 他到底将如何做这件事?

What in the world do you mean? 你的意思究竟是什么?

Who on earth told you that?  那件事究竟是谁告诉你的?

What in the world are they hoping for? 他们到底想要什么?


015
Are you ... or ...?


结构︰ 一般疑问句(读升调)+or+一般疑问句(读降调)

说明︰ 此句型意为“是…还是…?"。这是选择疑问句,前面都是一般疑问句,后面的问句如与前面有相同的部分,都可以省略。


Are you from the America or from the England?   您是美国人还是英国人?

Will he go on Monday or on Tuesday?   他是星期一走还是星期二走?

Would you like coffee or tea?   你是要咖啡还是茶?


016
What ..., + A or B?


结构︰ 特殊疑问句(读降调),+A(读升调)or B(读降调)

说明︰ 这种选择疑问句使用得相当广泛,其特点是:前面的特殊疑问句已经明确地指出了要问的内容,再补充几项具体事物让对方做出肯定的答复。其语调是“降-升-降”调。


What would you like - coffee or tea?   你要什么?咖啡还是茶?

Which would you rather to buy - silk or cotton?  您想买什么?丝还是棉?

When will you go to the Fair, tomorrow or some other day?你何时去交易会?明天还是另找哪一天?


017
... what/which ...


结构︰ 主要子句+疑问词(what/how/which/why 等)+子句

说明︰ 这是间接疑问句。疑问词后面的语句采用正常词序,不采用特殊疑问句所用的倒装词序。全句末尾大多用句点,但也有用问号的。直接问句改为间接问句或间接句时,原先的疑问句要改为肯定句或否定句的顺序;助动词如 will,should,would, must,may,can 等,须照抄,不可去掉;助动词如 do,does,did,必须去掉,再将它后面的原形动词改为适当的形式。


I’d like to know how old the manager is.   我想知道经理有多大年纪。

He inquired how it was done.   他问这事做得怎么样了。

Please advise me which item I should buy.   请问我该先买哪个品种。

Tell me why it is so important?   告诉我为什么此事这么重要?

They do not know what the words mean.  他们不知道这些字的意思是什么。

Tell me what happened yesterday.  告诉我昨天所发生的事。

What they talked about is what we want to know. 他们谈论什么是我们所想要知道的事。

She washed her hair every night and measured how much it grew in a week.

她每晚洗头发,而且量量看一星期长多少。

You will never know how much your encouragement meant to me.你绝不会知道你的鼓励对我多么有意义。


018
... whether/if ...


结构︰ 主要子句+whether/if+子句

说明︰ 此句型意为“…是否…”。口语中使用 if 较为普遍。如果子句中带有 or not 等词,则只能用 whether;另外,whether 不能引导否定的间接疑问句,而 if 则可以。


He asked me the question whether the price was too high.  他问我价格是否太高。

They asked him whether the quality is fine or not.  他们问他质量是否好。

Tell me whether you like this color.  告诉我你喜不喜欢这种颜色。

Tell me if it doesn’t rain.  告诉我是否下不了雨。

Ask him if it is true.   问他那是不是真的。

I wonder if he is in the school.  我想知道他是否在学校。


019
Do you know if/where ...


结构︰ 一般疑问句+疑问词(what/where/when 等)+子句

说明︰ 此句为双重疑问句。疑问词后面采用正常词序,不用倒装词序。


Can you tell me where the teacher has gone?  你能告诉我老师到哪里去了吗?

Do you know if they like this new item?  你知道他们是否喜欢这个新品种?

Do you know who wants to go with me?  你知道谁想跟我一起去吗?

Do you know when the train will leave?  你知道火车何时开吗?

Can you tell me how much you earn a month? 你能告诉我你一个月赚多少吗?


020
He is ..., is he?


结构︰ 肯定式陈述句+肯定式反问句

说明︰ 这种疑问句型的前后一致,都是肯定式结构。后一部分进一步强调前一部分的内容,是不需要回答的一种修辞方式。


We are old friends, not strangers, right?   我们是老朋友了,不是陌生人,是吗?

He’s a capable businessman, is he?   他是一位很有能力的业务员,可不是吗?

So you’ve been to Shanghai, have you? 原来你去过上海,是吧?


021
... what ...?


结构︰ …疑问词(在句中任何位置上)…

说明︰ 疑问词不是位于句子开头,而是在句子中任何位置上,这种方法十分简单,因此在口语中经常出现。


Two times what number makes ten?  什么数的两倍是十?

You will go where?   你要到哪里去?

You are twenty-what this year?   你今年二十几岁?

He’s your who?  他是你什么人?


022
What/How about + N/V-ing?


结构︰ What/How about+名词/动名词?

说明︰ 此句型意为“…如何?”。这是征求对方意见或提议的委婉说法。


What about the name Smith?  史密斯这个名字怎么样?

What about going to a movie?  去看场电影如何?

What about lending me some money?   借点钱给我如何?

How about the others?  剩余的怎么样?

How about a drink?  来一杯吧?

How about a cup of coffee at a nearby coffee shop?  去附近的咖啡屋喝杯咖啡吧?


023
What if ...?


结构︰ What if+主词+动词

说明︰ 此句型意为“如果…的话怎么办呢?”。但经常用于反语,有时也变成“即使…也没关系”之意。


What if it is true?   如果这是真的又该如何呢?

What if he doesn’t agree?  如果他不同意该怎么办呢?

What if the boy’s parents should die?  如果那男孩的父母死了该怎么办呢?

What if I fail!  即使我失败了又怎样!


024
What ... for?


结构︰ What+助动词+主词+动词…+for?

说明︰ 此句型意为“为什么…?”。相当于“For what…?”


What are you running for?  你为什么在跑步?

What do you want it for?   你为什么要那个?


025
How else ...?


结构︰ How else+助动词+主词+助动词?

说明︰ 此句型意为“…还有别的方法吗?”。


How else should a father in this modern world express his affection and concern for his own son?  现代这个世界上,父亲还应该有别的方法来对自己的儿子表示爱护和关心吗?

How else can the doctor save him?   医院还有别的方法可以救他吗?

How else can I apologize for her?   我还能有别的方法可以向她道歉吗?